La Legge Fondamentale della Scienza e della Tecnologia

La decisione di puntare investimenti importanti e crescenti sulla ricerca scientifica e tecnologica in Giappone è stata sancita da una legge del 1995, voluta da Koji Omi (fondatore del StsForum). Quella legge si chiama «Legge Fondamentale della Scienza e della Tecnologia» (nome meraviglioso). E coordina gli sforzi del Giappone sotto questo aspetto. Alcune caratteristiche della legge sono piuttosto istruttive, imho:

1. È fatta di 19 articoli ed è scritta in 4 pagine
2. È motivata dalla convinzione che lo sviluppo discende dalla ricerca
3. Tra i suoi principi: la ricerca è per lo sviluppo sostenibile dell’umanità
4. Prevede la necessità di un impegno bilanciato per le scienze naturali e umanistiche
5. Lo Stato si impegna a promuovere la scienza; il Governo fornisce un resoconto annuale al Parlmento sui risultati ottenuti in quadro che invita al miglioramento continuo
Ecco una traduzione non ufficiale della legge che si trova sul sito del governo giapponese:
The Science and Technology Basic Law (Unofficial
Translation)

(Law No. 130 of 1995. Effective on November 15, 1995)
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 General Provisions (Articles 1 – 8)
Chapter 2 Science and Technology Basic Plan(Article 9)
Chapter 3 Promotion of Research and Development (Articles 10 – 17)
Chapter 4 Promotion of International Exchange (Article 18)
Chapter 5 Promotion of Learning on S&T (Article 19)
Supplementary Provision

Chapter 1 General Provisions
(Objective)
Article 1
            The
objective of this law is to achieve a higher standard of science and
technology (hereinafter referred to as “S&T”), to contribute
to the development of the economy and society in Japan and to the improvement
of the welfare of the nation, as well as to contribute to the progress
of S&T in the world and the sustainable development of human society,
through prescribing the basic policy requirements for the promotion
of S&T (excluding those relevant only to the humanities in this
law) and comprehensively and systematically promoting policies for the
progress of S&T.

(Guidelines for Promotion of S&T)
Article 2
            S&T
shall be actively promoted in harmony with human life, society and nature
with the recognition that the creativity of researchers and technicians
(hereinafter referred to as “Researchers”) can be fully developed,
in consideration of the fact that S&T provides the basis for the
future development of Japan and human society and that the accumulation
of knowledge on S&T is the intellectual asset common for all mankind.
2           
In the promotion of S&T, the improvement of balanced ability of
research and development (hereinafter referred to as “R&D”)
in various fields, harmonized development among basic research, applied
research and development and organic cooperation of national research
institutes, universities (including graduate schools in this law.) and
private sector etc. should be considered, and in consideration of the
fact that the mutual connection between natural science and the humanities
is essential for the progress of S&T, attention should be paid to
the balanced development of both.

(Responsibility of the Nation)
Article 3
            The
nation is responsible for formulating and implementing comprehensive
policies with regard to the promotion of S&T.

(Responsibility of Local Governments)
Article 4
            The
local governments are responsible for formulating and implementing policies
with regard to the promotion of S&T corresponding to national policies
and policies of their own initiatives in accordance with the characteristics
of their jurisdictions.

(Necessary Consideration to be given by the Nation and Local Governments
in Formulating Policies)
Article 5
            In
formulating and implementing policies with regard to the promotion of
S&T, the nation and local governments shall pay attention to the
importance of their roles in promoting basic research and consider that
basic research has the following characteristics:
(i) It could bring about discovery and elucidation of new phenomena
and make the creation of novel technologies possible;
(ii) Forecasting its results at the outset of research is difficult;
and
(iii) The results are not necessarily directly connected to practical
applications.

(Necessary Consideration in Policies with regard to universities)
Article 6
            In
formulating and implementing policies related to universities and Inter-university
Research Institutes (hereinafter referred to as “Universities”),
with regard to the promotion of S&T, the local and national governments
shall make an effort to activate research in Universities, respect the
autonomy of Researchers and consider the characteristics of research
in Universities.

(Legislative and other Measures)
Article 7
            The
Government shall take the appropriate legislative, fiscal, financial
and other necessary measures required to implement the policies with
regard to the promotion of S&T.

(Annual Report)
Article 8
            The
Government shall annually submit a report on the policy measures implemented
with regard to the promotion of S&T to the National Diet.

Chapter 2 S&T Basic Plan
Article 9
            The
Government shall establish a basic plan for the promotion of S&T
(hereinafter referred to as “Basic Plan”) in order to comprehensively
and systematically implement policies with regard to the promotion of
S&T.
2            
The Basic Plan shall stipulate the following matters:
(i) The comprehensive plans for the promotion of R&D (the term “R&D”
means basic, applied and developmental researches and includes technology
development in this law.);
(ii) The policies taken comprehensively and systematically by the Government
with regard to the installation of R&D facilities and equipment
(hereinafter referred to as “Facilities”), the promotion of
information intensive R&D activities and the maintenance of the
necessary environment for the promotion of R&D; and
(iii) Other matters required to promote S&T.
3           
The Government shall consult the Council for Science and Technology
Policy on the Basic Plan prior to formulation.
4           
The Government shall consider the progress of S&T and the effect
of policies taken by the Government with regard to the promotion of
S&T, examine the Basic Plan properly, and revise it if necessary.
The preceding paragraph shall apply in the case of revisions.
5           
When formulating the Basic Plan in accordance with paragraph 1 above
or revising it in accordance with the preceding paragraph, the Government
shall publish the summary of the Basic Plan.
6           
In order to secure necessary funds for the implementation of the Basic
Plan, every fiscal year the Government shall take the necessary measures
for the smooth implementation of the Basic Plan such as including the
necessary fund in the budget within the limits of national financial
status.

Chapter 3 Promotion of R&D
(Balanced Promotion of various levels of R&D)
Article 10
            The
nation should implement necessary policy measures for the balanced promotion
of various levels of R&D in comprehensive fields as well as take
necessary measures for the planning and implementation of R&D in
the specific fields of S&T where the nation considers further promotion
important.

(Securing Researchers)
Article 11
            The
nation should implement necessary policy measures to improve education
and research in graduate schools, to secure and train Researchers and
to improve their quality in order to promote R&D corresponding to
the progress of S&T.
2           
The nation should implement necessary policy measures to improve the
occupational conditions of Researchers in order for their positions
to be attractive commensurate with their importance.
3           
In consideration of the fact that R&D supporting personnel are essential
for the smooth promotion of R&D, the nation should implement necessary
policy measures corresponding to the preceding two paragraphs in order
to secure and train them and to improve their quality of service a long
with their occupational conditions.

(Improvement of Facilities)
Article 12
            The
nation should implement necessary policy measures to improve research
facilities of R&D institutions (the term “R&D institutions”
is defined as national research institutes and institutions for R&D
in Universities, private sector and so on in this law) in order to promote
R&D corresponding to the progress of S&T.
2           
The nation should implement necessary policy measures to upgrade supporting
R&D functions such as supplying research materials smoothly in order
to promote R&D effectively.

(Promotion of Information Intensive R&D)
Article 13
            The
nation should take necessary policies to promote information intensive
R&D activities such as the advancement of information processing
in S&T, the maintenance of databases on S&T and the construction
of information networks among R&D institutions in order to promote
R&D effectively.

(Promotion of Exchange in R&D)
Article 14
            The
nation should implement necessary policy measures for the promotion
of R&D to enhance various exchanges such as the exchange of Researchers,
joint R&D of R&D institutions and joint use of Facilities of
R&D institutions, in consideration of the fact that promoting the
fusion of various Researchers’ knowledge through exchanges between R&D
institutions and/or Researchers is the source of new R&D progress
and that this exchange is essential for the effective promotion of R&D.

(Effective use of R&D funds)
Article 15
            The
nation should implement necessary policy measures to use R&D funds
effectively corresponding to the progress of R&D in order to promote
R&D smoothly.

(Making public the results of R&D)
Article 16
            The
nation should implement necessary policy measures to diffuse the results
of R&D, such as the publication of the results of R&D and the
provision of the information on R&D and measures to promote appropriate
practical applications of them.

(Support of efforts by private enterprises)
Article 17
            In
consideration of the importance of the role played by the private sector
in S&T activities in Japan, the nation should implement necessary
policy measures to promote private sector R&D by encouraging initiatives
in the private sector.

Chapter 4 Promotion of International Exchange
Article 18
            The
nation should implement necessary policy measures to promote international
exchange such as international exchange of Researchers, international
joint R&D and international distribution of information on S&T,
in order to play an active role in international society, as well as
to contribute to further progress in S&T in Japan, by intensely
promoting international S&T activities.

Chapter 5 Promotion of Learning on S&T
Article 19
            The
nation should implement necessary policy measures to promote the learning
of S&T in school and social education, to enlighten the people in
S&T and to disseminate knowledge on S&T, so that all Japanese
people including the young can deepen their understanding of and interest
in S&T with every opportunity.

Supplementary Provision
This law shall enter into force on the day of its promulgation.

This English language version of this law is a translation of an original
document produced in Japanese. Any questions that may arise about the
interpretation of the law shall be resolved with regard to the original
Japanese document.

Comments

6 Comments so far. Leave a comment below.
  1. Questa cosa è sensazionale, innovazione allo stato puro… ed è del 1995

  2. Se posso fare un appunto questa legge è tipicamente giapponese. Ricalca uno stereotipo per cui tutto può essere definito in maniera netta. Questo osservando la storia delle scoperte scientifiche è un falso clamoroso. Le grandi scoperte, i balzi avvengono in maniera quantistica e non per massicci investimenti. Certo l’organizzazione aiuta e anche i soldi sono importanti, ma questo vale più per la tecnologia che per le scienze. Vale molto di più la libertà di pensiero e la libera circolazione delle idee.

  3. @Roldano: senza massicci investimenti (monetari, umani e strutturali) non è possibile fare ricerca di alto livello ed a lungo termine in ambito scientifico.
    Che poi a grande investimento non corrisponda necessariamente una grande scoperta è ovvio, ma senza i soldi è estremamente difficile creare le condizioni giuste per farla :-)
    Libertà di pensiero e di circolazione delle idee sono altri due ingredienti molto utili (e soprattutto per la seconda, basta guardare il fiorire di ottimi blog scientifici)…
    P.S. la sezione sulla ricerca di base è splendida :-)

  4. Una sola nota a margine: con questo numero di parole il nostro, di legislatore, sarebbe riuscito al massimo a richiamare le precedenti leggi a cui fare riferimenti se si vuole sperare di capire la legge in oggetto… ma solo sperare.

  5. Alessio Caravella,

    Giusto un appunto generale da chi vive proprio in Giappone da un po’ più di un anno… la differenza sostanziale tra Giappone ed Italia è che loro (i Giapponesi) pensano (a ragione) che il futuro sia nelle loro mani e fanno di tutto per costruirsene uno migliore, mentre noi Italiani non ci pensiamo affatto o, comunque, siamo convinti che ci penserà qualcun altro e viviamo alla giornata aspettando una “rivoluzione” dall’alto che, ahimè, dovrebbe partire proprio dalle fondamenta della nostra società.

  6. If you are going for best contents like I do, simply visit this website daily since it offers quality contents, thanks

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